Catalog of Beneficials

 

Parasites - beneficials that use one host per lifetime

 

Anagyrus pseudococci, Mealybug parasite

Aphelinus abdominalis, Aphid Parasite

Aphidius colemani, Aphid Parasite

Aphidius ervi (parasitic wasp) Aphid Parasite

Aphidius matricariae, Aphidius colemani, Aphidius ervi

Aphytis melinus, the golden chalcid, Armored Scale parasite

Diglyphus isaea, Dacnusa sibirica, Leaf Miner Parasites (parasitic wasps)

Encarsia (Encarsia formosa), Whitefly parasite

Eretmocerus californicus, Whitefly Parasite

Goniozus legneri Navel Orangeworm Parasite

Leptomastidea abnormis, Mealybug parasite

Leptomastix dactylopii, parasitic wasp for citrus mealybug

Metaphycus helvolus, Release instructions:

Pentalitomastix plethoricus, Navel Orangeworm Parasite

 

Anagyrus pseudococci, Mealybug parasite

Scientific Name: Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault), Race/Strain: SpainOrder: Hymenoptera (parasitic wasp), Family: Encyrtidae

 

Packaging: 5,000 adults per 8 oz cup or 1,000 adults in a 250 ml bottle

Holding after receipt: Keep parasites in an insulated cooler 46.5-50 F (8-10 C) with wet newspaper and ice packs in the dark for 1-2 days. Release as soon as possible.

Target Pest: Vine Mealybug and Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri

Preferred Pest Stage: 4th and 5th instars (egg laying adults)

Citrus mealybug mainly the third larval stage, but second and fourth larval stage can be parasitized as well. Other mealybug species are not parasitized.

Target Crops: Grapes and citrus

Timing: Begin releasing in late winter or early spring.

Release Rate:

Infestation Level

Rate

Frequency

preventive

1/40 ft2 (0.25/m2)

every 2 weeks

light

1/20 ft2 (0.5/ m2)

2 introductions 2 weeks apart

heavy

1/10 ft2 (1/ m2)

minimum of 2 weekly introductions

 

Release Method: Anagyrus pseudococci are ready for release upon arrival. They should be released in the early morning, after temperatures have risen above 45 F, but below 95 F. Release between (infested) leaves in the morning or in the evening. Check vitality prior to releasing. Control ants prior to releasing.

Biology Natural Host Food: Mealybug sp, Citrus mealybug, vine mealybug

Natural Habitat: Grapes and citrus

Life Cycle: 15-18 days at 80 F 50% humidity, 20-24 generations per year under laboratory conditions.

Sex Ratio: 50-60% females

Fecundity: Averages 45 offspring per female

Longevity: Females can live 40 days, males 30 days, under laboratory conditions with weekly feedings. They survive 14 days with one feeding.

Appearance: Female adults: size 1.5-2.0 mm; brown, with distinctive black and white banded antennae Male adults: about 0.8 mm; entirely black Other stages: develop inside the host

Mode of action: Female adult parasitic wasp parasitizes citrus mealybug (larvae).

Visual evidence: The pupa swells and hardens into a yellow-brown (striped) mummy, with remainders of wax on the outside. The adult parasitic wasp emerges through an irregular exit hole gnawed at the posterior end of the mummy. The first mummies can be seen in the crop approximately 3 weeks after introduction.

 

 

Aphelinus abdominalis, Aphid Parasite

Product Information Aphel-line ab. Aphelinus abdominalis

 

A parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) which attacks certain aphid species.

Contents: Minimum of 250 viable adults per unit. A food source is provided to ensure that emerged adults arrive in the best possible condition.

Description: A female will lay an egg directly into the aphid body where it hatches and the resulting larvae consume the aphid’s body contents. When the parasite larva is fully grown, the host becomes blackened and a distinct mummy is formed At 20 C the aphid turns black 7 days after parasitism. The mummy then takes an additional 14 days to develop before an adult wasp emerges.

In Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Aphelinus prefers to parasitize second and third instar aphids. Host feeding is an important source of mortality in the aphids, with each female killing approximately 2 aphids per day.

In laboratory studies, each female is capable of producing an average of 250 or more offspring over a period of 3 weeks with an average daily production of 14. In field situations the number of offspring produced will be somewhat less.

Aphelinus tends to walk over the crop rather than fly. Therefore, it remains on the crop and does not readily leave the greenhouse.

Host range: Aphelinus abdominalis has been recorded as parasitizing a wide range of aphid species. It can be used in any crop where the aphid pests Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Aulacorthum solani occur. It will also paratize Myzus persicae but the parasite Aphidius colernani is better suited to this task.

Application rates: Best results are obtained by making low rate preventative releases when there is a risk of aphids invading the crop. Once larger outbreaks of aphids are detected, higher release rates may be made immediately beneath colonies.

To apply the parasites preventively, use a release rate of between 0.2/m2 and 0.5/m2 weekly.

For corrective release, open the bottle or vial immediately adjacent to the aphid outbreak and rest it at the base of the affected plant. Repeat as necessary.

For heavy outbreaks of Macrosiphum and Aulacorthurn, it is preferable to reduce populations before releasing parasitoids.

IMPORTANT:

  • Be sure to properly identify the aphid species.
  • Monitor the crop carefully and begin releases early.

Do not release immediately before or after pesticide applications. Check pesticide compatibility

 

Aphidius colemani, Aphid Parasite

A parasitic wasp (Family: Braconidae) that attacks several species of aphid pests. Commonly used in greenhouses producing vegetables and ornamentals.

Contents: minimum 500 parasites, packed as pupae. Some adults may emerge in transit.

General appearance and life history: Adult wasps are black, 2-3 mm long with a narrow waist and long antennae. Adult females lay eggs by curling the abdomen forward and quickly stabbing an aphid. The egg hatches, inside the aphid, into a larva that consumes the aphid. The wasp larva then pupates inside the aphid cadaver which has developed a characteristic round, golden brown, mummified appearance. The emerging adult cuts a round hole to escape. At 72 F (22 C) mummies will form about 1 week after egg laying and adults will emerge 1 week later. Each female can lay over 100 eggs.

 

Hosts: Used to control cotton (melon) aphid, Aphis gossypii and green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). A. colemani has been identified attacking a wide range of other aphids but there is little information about its success as a control agent.

 

Crops: Commonly used on commercial cucumber and pepper crops grown in greenhouses. Parasitism does occur on other crops that host aphids. A. colemani has been released and established worldwide.

 

Environment: Performs well in greenhouse conditions at temperatures between 65 and 80 F 180 - 26 C) Reduced efficiency above 860F (30 C).

 

Application rate: For prevention when aphids may occur, 0.1 - 0.5 / m2 (1 - 5 / 100 ft2) Up to 5 / m2 (50 / 100 ft) for existing infestations.

 

Release: Release emerged adults as soon as possible upon receipt, preferably in the evening, by opening vials and walking through the crop. Vials with pupae may be left open, in a shaded location, under existing aphid colonies.

 

Important:

Apply as a preventative or at the earliest sign of aphid infestation. Aphid populations can increase up to 20 times in one week.

Do not release immediately before or after pesticide applications. Check compatibility charts before pesticide use.

Be sure to properly identify your aphid species.

 

Aphidius ervi (parasitic wasp) Aphid Parasite

Aphidius ervi Haliday, Braconidae, Hymenoptera

Packaging

250 ml bottle Contains: 250 adults

Target

Aphidius ervi females seek out and parasitize aphids, in particular the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and the greenhouse potato aphid Aulacorthum solani. It is also commonly recovered from the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and research has been done on both Pea and Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicue. Other aphid species are also attacked, but less information is available about these. Use Aphidius ervi when aphid infestations are low.

APHIDIUS ERVI Application Rate

Infestation

Rate

unit covers

Frequency & Interval
preventive

0.15/10 ft2

16,500 ft2

every week
curative light

0.5/10 ft2

5,000 ft2

3 weekly introductions
curative heavy

0.5/10 ft2

5,000 ft2

6 times with 3 days between applications

 

Introduction

Release parasitic wasps between plant leaves in the morning or in the evening in cool temperatures and low light levels

Conditions

Not active at high temperatures (above 86 F or 30 C).

Storage

Use as soon as possible. Storage after receipt: 1-2 days at 46 to 50 F (8 to 10 C) in the dark

Appearance

Adults: size 4-5 mm, black Other stages: develop inside host. Parasitized aphid swells and hardens into a leathery, gray or brown colored mummy. The adult parasite emerges through a round hole at the rear of the mummy. The first mummies can be seen in the crop approximately 2 weeks after the first introduction

Mode of action

Adult female wasp parasitizes the aphid.

Life Cycle

The life cycle of Aphidius ervi is longer than that of Aphidius colemani at the same temperatures, and the parasite is larger and selects larger hosts. Where A. colemani reaches adulthood within 14 days at 70 F (21 C), A. ervi takes nearly 19 days at the same temperature. At 60 F (15 C), the duration of the cycle is approximately 20 days for Aphidius colemani, while it is nearly 29 days for A. ervi.

 

Aphidius ervi (parasitic wasp) Aphid Parasite

How does it work?

Aphidius ervi females seek out and parasitise aphids. The main target for this parasitoid in commercial crops is the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Other targets are the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicue. Other aphid species are also attacked, but less information is available about these,

Once a female finds an individual aphid or aphid colony, she will palpate the aphids with her antennae. If the aphid she is examining is of the correct size, and has not already been parasitized, she rapidly curls her abdomen under her body and stabs the aphid with her ovipositor. This takes less than one second, but in this time the female checks the identity of the aphid with her ovipositor, and lays an egg into it if she is satisfied.

The egg soon hatches, and the resulting larva begins to feed within the aphid. Initially it will not kill the host, but as it grows it begins to feed on the vital organs so that the aphid dies. When fully grown, the Aphidius larva cuts a slit in the hollowed out shell of its host, and attaches the carcass to the substrate with silk. As it spins more silk within the host skin, this gradually takes on a golden color and forms the characteristic ‘aphid mummy’. Within the mummy, the larva pupates, and after five to ten days an adult is ready to emerge. The adult Cuts a circular trap door in the mummy, always on the upper surface at the back, and escapes through this to seek out new hosts.

 

When and where should you use it?

Aphi-line e can be used in any crop where Macrosiphum euphorbiae is the principal pest aphid occurring. Although it is a vigorous parasite which can attack many individual aphids, it will work best when used prophylactically during periods when aphids are expected to arrive in the crop. This will ensure that at least some of the initial aphids colonizing the crop will be found and parasitized, so that colonies may grow slowly or be stopped entirely before they reach damaging levels. There will then be fewer large colonies, and fewer aphids will develop as winged individuals and spread through the crop to form new foci of infestation.

This prophylactic approach can be achieved using either regular low rate releases of between 0.25/10 ft2 and 0.5/10 ft2/week, or by using cereal plants infested with an alternative aphid host which will not attack the principal crop. These 'banker' plants’ are popular with many growers, but they require horticultural care, and may need repeated releases of cereal aphids to function.

This prophylactic approach may entirely avoid aphid outbreaks, but if not it will slow the development of colonies of aphids and allow the grower extra time in which to act. Aphidius ervi can also be released correctively directly onto existing colonies, but the rapid reproductive rate of aphids and the lag between parasitism by Aphidius spp. and death of the host may allow the population to grow beyond the level at which economic damage is caused. It may therefore be necessary to use another biological agent or a compatible chemical agent to reduce localized outbreaks to a manageable level before releasing Aphidius.

 

How should I use it?

Adults must be released into the crop as soon as possible after receipt, ideally in cool temperatures and low light levels to avoid the risk that they will fly immediately to the roof of the greenhouse. If this is not possible, they should be kept below 10 C in darkness until release. Mortality will occur during any period of storage.

 

Aphidius ervi is originally a European species, but it has been widely introduced into North and South America, Australia and other regions in recent years as part of biological control programs for aphids on a variety of crops.

 

Aphidius matricariae, Aphidius colemani, Aphidius ervi

Aphid Parasites

By Applied Bio-nomics

 

Target pests

Aphidius matricariae: Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae); related aphids.

Aphidius colemani: Melon aphid (Aphis gossypii)

Aphidius irvi Potato aphid (Macrosyphum euphorbiae)

 

Description

‘Aphidius’ species are a group of native parasitic wasps, frequently found parasitizing aphids in greenhouses and outdoor crops.

  • Adults are tiny, dark coloured, non-stinging wasps, up to 2-3 mm (1/8 inch) long.
  • Larvae develop entirely inside host aphids, which eventually become rigid mummies when the larvae pupate.

Aphidius is a good searcher, and can locate new aphid colonies even when aphid populations are low.

 

Use in Biological Control

  • Aphidius matricariae parasitizes about 40 aphid species, including green peach aphid and closely related species (for information on aphids, see Sheet 340).
  • Optimum conditions are daytime temperatures of 18-25 C (64-77 F) and relative humidity 60-80%.
  • Aphidius is not effected by short-day induced diapause, so it can be used year-round.
  • Aphidius alone will not provide control when aphid populations are high, but can be used with Aphidoletes to provide control (see Sheet 240).
  • Effectiveness may be reduced in late summer when Aphidius itself may be attacked by naturally occurring parastic wasps (called hyperparasites).

 

Monitoring Tips

Use a 10-15 X lens to inspect aphid mummies for round holes in the hind end, which indicates the adult parasites have emerged. A ragged emergence hole, in the top (mid-back) of the mummy indicates a hyperparasite has emerged (see diagram).

 

Life Cycle

A complete life cycle takes 10 days at 25 C (77 F) and 2 weeks at 21 C (70F).

  • Sex ratio in the population is about equal, although there may be slightly more females than males (50-60% females).
  • Each female lays about 100 eggs in aphids but may attack 200 to 300 aphids in the process.
  • The larvae develop entirely inside the aphids and do not kill their host until the wasp larva is ready to pupate.
  • The larva pupate inside the aphid’s body, which become a rigid, leathery, golden-brown mummy.
  • Adults emerge from the mummies by cutting an exit hole in the top. The empty mummy remains on the leaf surface. The size of the adult parasite and the number of eggs it can lay, depends on the size of the aphid it came from.

 

Product Information

Aphidius is shipped either as parasitized aphid mummies (pupae) from which adults will emerge, or as newly emerged adults. The advantage of shipping adults is that they usually arrive pre-mated and the supplier can ensure they are sent without hyperparasites.

Adults should be released immediately by walking along the rows, allowing them to fly out of the container.

If necessary, parasitized aphid mummies may be held at 4-10 C (39-50 F) for up to 3 days.

 

Introduction Rates

Aphidius is most effective when aphid populations are low. Parasites can be introduced at low rates before aphids are detected in greenhouses or when aphids are likely to move onto crops outdoors. When aphids have been detected in a crop, higher release rates should be used over a period of at least 3 weeks.

Because of the time it takes for larvae to develop inside aphid mummies, use at least two releases one week apart to establish overlapping generations of the parasite.

 

General introduction rates

  • Before aphids are detected — 1,000 Aphidius/ha weekly (400/acre)
  • After aphids are established — 5,000 Aphidius / ha (2000/acre) 2-3 times, one week apart.

 

Specific crops

  • Greenhouse peppers — Before aphids are detected: 1,000 Aphidius/ha

(400 Aphidius/acre) weekly. After aphids are established: 5000 Aphidius/ha (2000/acre), 2-3 times or until significant numbers of mummies begin to develop.

  • Greenhouse tomatoes — 1 Aphidius/10 plants, weekly for 2 weeks.
  • Greenhouse cucumbers — 1 Aphidius/plant, weekly until established.
  • Ornamentals and outdoors — 0.1-3 Aphidius/m2 (10 ft) or 0.1-5 Aphidius/plant, weekly or until control is evident.

 

Note: The yellow sticky traps used for monitoring pest also trap Aphidius. If yellow traps are necessary for monitoring whitefly, do not release Aphidius near the yellow traps and use no more than 1 yellow trap per 100 plants. Aphidius are not attracted to blue sticky traps, which can be used for monitoring thrips where Aphidius is being released for aphid control.

 

For Best Results

  • During spring and summer, aphid populations grow too fast to be controlled by the parasite alone therefore it is advisable to introduce additional aphid predators such as Aphidoletes aphidimyza (see Sheet 240).
  • In gardens, wash high populations of aphids from plants with a strong water spray before introducing the aphid parasite. Note: Aphidius does not attack many common aphid species, such as potato aphid.

 

Using Pesticides

Aphidius matricariae is likely to be sensitive to the same pesticides as Encarsia formosa. Growth regulators used in crop production should not be harmful to Aphidius.   Spreader-stickers are likely to be harmful to Aphidius on contact, but do not have residual effect. Insecticidal soap and pirimicarb (e.g., Pirliss) can be used to reduce aphid numbers in hot spots without harming the pupal stage of Aphidius.

 

Aphytis melinus, the golden chalcid, Armored Scale parasite

Packaging vials of 5,000 adults ready for immediate release

Target pests (in order of preference)

California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii, on citrus, roses and ornamentals

Ivy or oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii, on a wide range of hosts including palm and cycads

San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, and Walnut scale, Q. juglanregiae

Dyctyospermum scale, Chrysomphalus dictyospermi, on a wide range of hosts

 

Biology

Aphytis melinus is a small yellow (1 mm) wasp that parasitizes various types of armoured scales by laying eggs under the waxy scale covering. Parasite larvae develop under the scale covering. Only 2nd and 3rd instar of female scales and 2nd instar and pre-pupae male scales are parasitized. Many other stages of scales are killed by adults host feeding on them. Parasitized scales look dried out and may have dark spots when examined closely. Rubbing infested fruit and noting the amount of scales removed can give a quick assessment of parasitism. At 80 F, A. melinus takes 13-17 days to develop from egg to adult. Adults live about 10-15 days (up to 24 days), depositing 6-7 eggs/day. Optimal release conditions are between 60-85 F, at least 50% RH and in areas with scales of suitable stages for parasitism.

Use in Biological Control

Aphytis melinus are available in plastic cups of 5,000. In general they should be released regularly (1-3 week intervals) at the first sign of scale in the spring until low scale populations are maintained.

  • To build an established population in orchards, 1-2 cups/acre should be released every other week until the scale population is reduced to a low level. Release on the shaded side of the trees at temperatures below 90 F. Release some parasites every sixth tree every sixth row starting at a different row each week to assure even distribution. The parasites can be released either by leaving an opened cup in a tree infested with scales or by walking though the orchard with an opened cup for more rapid dispersal. Afterwards an annual release of -1 cup/acre is recommended in the spring. Use a summer oil spray to reduce high number of scales 2-3 weeks before releasing parasites.
  • For interior plantings, regular releases of A. melinus work best and can control infestations in 2-3 months. Afterwards 1-3 releases/year should be sufficient to maintain control. The release rate depends on the suitability of the scale host. A guideline rate is 5-10 parasitoids/ infested plant or 10/sq yard. Release parasites by waving an opened cup around infested plants 2-3 times at 2-3 week intervals. Release at dusk or with the windows shaded so the Aphytis will find infested plants quicker. If initial scale populations are high, apply insecticidal soap 2-3 weeks before 1st release. Wash off honeydew accumulations off plants just before release.

 

Storage

Use parasites within one day of arrival. If absolutely necessary, store in a cool (approx. 60 F), dark place until use. Do not refrigerate or place insects directly next to cold packs. Aphytis viability decreases rapidly with prolonged storage.

Pesticide compatibility

Oil sprays, insecticidal soaps, Bacillus thuringiensis and Sabadilla. If more toxic pesticides must be used, Aphytis should be released again about 4 weeks after application.

 

Diglyphus isaea, Dacnusa sibirica, Leaf Miner Parasites (parasitic wasps)

Packaging Container: 100 ml bottle

* OPIMIX: Opius pallipes & Diglyphus isaea (parasitic wasps) Contains: 225 adults O.p. & 25 adults D.i.* MINEX: Dacnusa sibirica & Diglyphus isaea (parasitic wasps) Contains: 225 adults D.s. & 25 adults D.i.* MIGLYPHUS: Diglyphus isaea (parasitic wasp) Contains: 250 adults* MINOPIUS: Opius pallipes (parasitic wasp) Contains: 250 adults* MINUSA: Dacnusa sibirica(parasitic wasp) Contains: 250 adults

Target

Leaf-miners in all larval stages, preferably the first and second stage for D.s. and the second and third stage for D.i.

 

Rates

OPIMIX, MINEX, MINOPIUS, MINUSA RATE 1 unit for (m2) FREQUENCY & INTERVAL
preventive 0.25/m2 1,000 every week
curative light 0.5/m2 500 minimum of 3 weekly introductions
curative heavy 2/m2 125 minimum of 3 weekly introductions

 

MIGLYPHUS RATE 1 unit for (m2) FREQUENCY & INTERVAL
preventive - - -
curative light 0,1/m2 2,500 minimum of 3 weekly introductions
curative heavy 1/m2 250 minimum of 3 weekly introductions

 

Introduction Release parasitic wasps between leaves, in the morning or in the evening Release soon after arrival or store 1-2 days at 8-10 degrees Celsius, in the dark.

Conditions MINOPIUS and MINUSA are recommended at low levels of infection, MIGLYPHUS when infection increases. OPIMIX and MINEX can be used in both circumstances.Remarks

Leaf-miner parasites can occur spontaneously. Introductions should be adapted to the level of leaf-miner infestation and parasitism already present.

 

Appearance, Mode of action Adults D.s./O.p.: size 2-3 mm, dark-brown to black, long antennae. Adult female parasitic wasps of Dacnusa sibirica and Opius pallipes lay an egg inside the leaf-miner larva; the parasitic wasp develops inside the leaf-miner pupa.

Adults D.i.: size 2-3 mm, metallic green, short antennae. Other stages: develop inside/outside host. Adult female parasitic wasp of Diglyphus isaea kills leaf-miner larva in the mine and lays an egg in it. The egg develops into a parasitic wasp inside the mine (but outside the leaf-miner), using the dead larva as food. Host-feeding also takes place.Evidence of Effect

Two weeks after introduction it is possible to see parasitization. The presence of Diglyphus isaea is recognized by short/stopped mines containing a dead larva; pupae of Diglyphus isaea can be seen when holding leaves up to the light. Presence of Dacnusa sibirica and Opius pallipes can only be estimated by disecting larvae in the laboratory.

 

Encarsia (Encarsia formosa), Whitefly parasite

by Applied Bio-Nomics

 

  • Target pests: the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), and to a limited extent, the sweet potatoe whitefly Bemesia tabaci, but not the ash whitefly.

 

  • Optimal conditions: temperatures greater than 180C (640F) and bright light. Relative humidities should exceed 60%, and whitefly populations will hinder movement of the parasite.

 

  • General introduction rates: Use 1-5 Encarsia/m 2 (1-5 Encarsia/10 ft 2) or 1-5 parasites/infested plant weekly or until control is achieved. Higher rates are necessary for the sweet potatoe whitefly. For greenhouse tomatoes or sweet peppers, 1 Encarsia/4 plants weekly; and for greenhouse cucumbers use 1 Encarsia/2 plants weekly.

 

Encarsia was one of the first biological control agents developed. This minute (<1 mm, 1/25 inch long) parasitic wasp (insect order Hymenoptera) is probably tropical in origin. it does not sting humans.

 

Target pests of this parasite are greenhouse whitefly and sweet potatoe whitefly. Growers should monitor for these pests weekly by using yellow (not blue) sticky strips or cards, at a rate of 1 trap/50-100m 2 (1 trap/500-1,000 ft 2). Traps should be placed just above The plant canopy. Yellow sticky tapes can also be used to trap adult whitefly. Use up to one tape per plant, and hang tapes at the same height as monitoring cards. The sweet potatoe whitefly may be more effectively trapped by lowering the tapes within the canopy. Sticky traps and tapes should be replaced every 3 weeks. It is imperative to identify the whitefly species present in a crop in order to choose the most appropriate release rate.

 

Life cycle

With the exception of the adult, all stages of Encarsia occur within the whitefly host. Adults are tiny wasps that lay eggs inside 2 week-old whitefly scales (second and third whitefly larval stages). Each egg will kill one whitefly scale. Adults lay up to 200 eggs. The parasite then develops inside of the whitefly scale, and midway through the development of the Encarsia within the whitefly, the scale turns dark. It becomes black for greenhouse whitefly, and transparent brown for sweet potatoe whitefly. This occurs after 10 days at normal at normal greenhouse temperatures. Another 10 days are required before adults emerge. Adult Encarsia emerge from the parasited scale by chewing a hole in the top of the scale. Adults can live for 30 days but normally are active for about 10 days. The complete life cycle requires nearly 28 days in commercial greenhouses.

 

Adults also kill whitefly scales by direct feeding. Otherwise, the feed on honeydew secreted by the whiteflies. Excessive amounts of honeydew hamper activity of the parasite. Although they are good flyers and will seek prey if necessary, the Encarsia tend to remain in regions where the whitefly are concentrated. It is important to distribute the Encarsia well throughout the greenhouse.

 

Temperature has a significant effect on Encarsia development. At 25 C (77 F) larval development requires 15 days, while at 15 C (59 F) 45 days may be required. At daytime temperatures less than 18 C (64 F), adult activity is sharply reduced, and Encarsia will be less effective. Temperatures between 20-25 C (68-77 F) are optimal.

 

Formulations

Encarsia are sold as black parasitized scales that have been fixed to cards. Each card contains 150 developing parasites. A strip of 10 cards contains 1,500 Encarsia whitefly parasites. No adults will be visible on the cards.

 

 

Introduction Rates

It is important to hang the cards from lower leaves in the shade, and avoid wetting them while watering. If hanging baskets are in green houses, some cards must be placed on the baskets, as well as with plants on benches.

 

Encarsia may be used in a preventive fashion by releasing it at low rates before greenhouse whitefly is detected on monitoring cards. Significantly higher rates are necessary once greenhouse whitefly is detected. In general, introduce Encarsia at rates of 1-5 Encarsia/m2 (1-5 Encarsia/10ft 2) or 1-5 Encarsia/infested plant weekly until control is achieved. Once the percentage of dark-colored, parasitized whitefly scales on leaves exceeds 80%, the numbers of Encarsia in the greenhouse should limit further spread of greenhouse whitefly. Do not attempt to use this parasite if high whitefly populations are present with excessive honeydew. Rates must be at least double for control of sweet potato whitefly.

 

For greenhouse tomatoes or sweet peppers, release 1 Encarsia/4 plants weekly until control is achieved. For greenhouse (long English) cucumber, release 1 Encarsia/2 plants weekly for 8-12 weeks until 80% parasitization is reached. Decrease rates for preventive control (before detection of whitefly), and increase for high populations of whitefly. Much greater rates are necessary to achieve control of sweet potato whitefly.

 

Poinsettias have two ranges of release rates. For either, it is imperative that all whitefly is eliminated from alternate plant sources (e.g. weeds or previous crops) and from cuttings before releases begin. Introduce 2 Encarsia/plant weekly for 8-12 weeks, or 3-4 Encarsia/plant weekly for 4-5 weeks. If sweet potato whitefly is present, the second approach is preferred to encourage the parasite to adapt to the new host.

 

 

Compatible Pesticides

Encarsia is extremely sensitive to insecticide residues. In greenhouses with plastic materials (i.e. covering or flooring), plastics may harbor residues at levels toxic to this parasite. Many fungicides are safe with spreader stickers are harmful.

 

Insecticides

Dipel (Bacillus thuringiensis)

Enstar (Kinoprene)

Vendex (fenbutation oxide)

 

 

Fungicides

Benlate (benomyl)

Botran (dicloran)

Daconil2787 (chlorothalonil)

Exothern termil (chlorothalonil)

Karathane (dinocap)

Kumulus, Micro niasul (sulfur)

Rovral (iprodione)

 

Growth Regulators

B-Nine (daminozide)

Cycocel (chlormequat chloride)

 

 

Eretmocerus californicus, Whitefly Parasite

Hosts 

With the help of the parasitic wasp Eretmocerus californicus (=E. eremicus), the tobacco (also silverleaf, sweetpotato) whitefly Bemisia tabaci, woolly whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus, Citrus whitefly Dialeurodes citri, bayberry whitefly Parabemisia myricae, can be controlled biologically. Also the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporarlorum is parasitized by Eretmocerus californicus. For effective control of the greenhouse whitefly, the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa (strips or loose) is recommended.

 

Mode of action

The parasitic wasp lays an egg inside the larva of the whitefly. (nymphal-pupal endo-parasite). Inside the larva the egg develops Into a parasitic wasp, during which, in the course of time, the pupa discolors yellow. This makes It possible to see that the whitefly pupa has been parasitized, and that instead of a whitefly a parasitic wasp will emerge. The adult parasitic wasp emerges through a round hole from the pupa. Female wasps have a solid light yellow color; male wasps have a yellowish brown color and have thick antennae.

 

Introduction

When the first whiteflies are observed, the parasitic wasp should be introduced as soon as possible. Preventive introduction is also possible. They should be introduced every week or every two weeks until sufficient yellow pupae are present (80-90%). For a whitefly sensitive crop consider using about 50,000 Eretmocerus per acre in a staged application. Release 5,000 to 20,000 per acre the first week, and the second week. On week three, four and beyond, release 2,000 per acre.

 

Application

The parasitic wasps are supplied as yellow pupae mixed with saw dust in 250 cc shaker bottles. These shaker bottles enable fast and even distribution of the pupae throughout the entire crop. Place the material on the leaves evenly at the bottom of the crop. The material should remain there for a few days, so that the parasitic wasps are given the chance to emerge and establish themselves In the crop. After their introduction, the parasitic wasps will emerge from the pupae within a few days. The parasitic wasps will then immediately start their work. After approximately two weeks, the first parasitized pupae can be observed in the crop.

 

Environment

For an optimal biological working of Eretmocerus californicus, the average twenty-four hours temperature should be higher than 75 F (24 C). The minimum effective temperatures are 50 F night and 65 F day. The parasitic wasp is susceptible to various chemical pesticides. Use caution when treating other diseases and pests. Consult the list "Effects of Chemicals On Biological Control Agents" (Eretmocerus californicus is comparable to the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa). Introduce the parasitic wasp as soon as possible after delivery. if necessary, the material can be stored for a short period of time: store the bottles in a dark place at 50-59 F (10-15 C). Do not place in direct sunlight. Do not place in a refrigerator

 

Goniozus legneri Navel Orangeworm Parasite

Product: A wasp for the control of navel orangeworm, carob moth, codling moth, and related worm pests, grown by California Bioworks

Common Name: Goniozus

Family: Bethylidae

Genus Goniozus

Species: legneri

Origin: Argentina and Uruguay, 1979

Target Pest: navel orangeworm, carob moth, codling moth, and pink bollworm.

Host Crop: almonds, walnuts, apples, dates, pecans, pistachios, prunes, cotton, etc...

Life Stages Shipped: pupae and pre-emergent adults in capsules

Sex Ratio: 6 females to 1 male. Our product is packaged in capsules to facilitate successful matings prior to release. This insures that you release fertile females.

Development: One adult female can lay approximately 100 eggs during her lifetime. Adults can live 70+ days with nectar or honey sources available. The adult female permanently paralyzes the worms in the nut and proceeds to lay her eggs on the largest worm available. She will then stay with the eggs and growing wasps, until she is satisfied that they will complete their development. At which time, she seeks out a new host worm to lay more eggs on. The eggs will hatch and develop in 12-15 days, during which time the young wasps consume the entire host worm. This next generation of wasps then seek out new hosts in the orchard and start the process over again.

Environment: Ideal temperature is 80 to 90 F and relative humidity (RH) 20% to 85% (a wide range).

Pesticides: Use may not be compatible. Request technical information on specific pesticides.

Storage: May be stored for 6-10 days at 50 F and 75% RH. Until release can occur keep pre-emerged wasps cool (70 F) Adults should emerge from the cocoons within 48 hours when stored at 80 F. Keep away from sunlight and do not store in an enclosed vehicle or toolbox. Release as adult wasps only! Do Not place pre-emerged cocoons in the orchard, as this will lead to loss of wasps due to insect predation (southern fire ant, earwigs, etc).

Release Rate. One time application of 1,000+ per acre or multiple releases (2-3 releases per year) for control of navel orangeworm. Release method, every 5 trees, every 5 rows.

 

Leptomastidea abnormis, Mealybug parasite

 

Scientific Name: Leptomastidea abnormis (Girault), Race/Strain: Israel

Order: Hymenoptera (parasitic wasp), Family: Encyrtidae

Packaging: 5,000 adults per 8 oz cup

Holding after receipt: Keep parasites in an insulated cooler 46.5-50 F (8-10 C) with wet newspaper and ice packs in the dark for 1-2 days. Release as soon as possible.

Target Pest: Vine Mealybug, Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri and Comstock Mealybug

Preferred Pest Stage: 2nd and 3rd instars

Target Crops: Grapes and citrus

Timing: Begin releasing in late winter or early spring.

Release Rate: 5,000 per acre, two applications

Release Method: Leptomastidea are ready for release upon arrival. They should be released in the early morning, after temperatures have risen above 45 F, but below 95 F. Release between (infested) leaves in the morning or in the evening. Check vitality prior to releasing. Control ants prior to releasing.

Biology

Natural Host Food: Mealybug sp, Citrus mealybug, vine mealybug

 

Natural Habitat: Grapes and citrus

 

Life Cycle: 17-30 days, 5-6 generations per year under field conditions. 21-24 days at 80 F 50% humidity, 10-12 generations per year under laboratory conditions.

 

Sex Ratio: 50-70% females Fecundity: Averages 57-300 offspring per female

 

Longevity: Adults can live 40 days, under laboratory conditions with two feedings.

 

Appearance:

Mode of action: Female adult parasitic wasp parasitizes citrus mealybug (larvae).Visual evidence: The pupa swells and hardens into a mummy. The adult parasitic wasp emerges through an irregular exit hole gnawed at the posterior end of the mummy. The first mummies can be seen in the crop approximately 3 weeks after introduction.

 

 

Leptomastix dactylopii, parasitic wasp for citrus mealybug, LEPTOPAR

Product of Koppert Biological Systems

 

Packaging

250 ml bottle Contains: 250 adults

 

Target

Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri; third larval stage. Other mealybug species are not parasitized.RatesLEPTOPAR

RATE

FREQUENCY & INTERVAL

preventive

-

-

curative light

1/10 ft2

every 2 weeks

curative heavy

2/10 ft2

every 2 weeks

 

Introduction between (infested) leaves in the morning or in the evening

 

Conditions No special conditions required. Storage It is not possible to store the material after receipt! Appearance  Female adults: size 3 mm, yellow-brown Male adults: smaller than female, hairy antennae Other stages: develop inside host.  Mode of action  Female adult parasitic wasp parasitizes citrus mealybug (larvae).

Visual effect

The pupa swells and hardens into a yellow-brown (striped) mummy, with remainders of wax on the outside. The adult parasitic wasp emerges through a round hole at the rear of the mummy. Approximately 2 weeks after introduction, the first mummies can be seen in the crop.

 

Metaphycus helvolus, Release instructions:

Outdoors: Release when temperatures are below 90 degrees F. Do not release in heavy rain Remove the lid on the container, place in infested plant Insects will fly out on their own. For faster release, remove lid and tap bottom of container.

 

Indoors: This insect prefers to fly to a sunny window or the brightest place in the structure They will return to the plants when the light diminishes. To avoid this behavior, shade the window or release at dusk.

 

Storage: Storage more than one day past arrival date is not recommended. If you must, store in a cool, dark place, approximately 60 degrees F Do not refrigerate, or place insects directly next to cold packs.

 

Pediobius foveolatus, Parasitic Wasp

Biological Control of Mexican Bean Beetle

Mexican bean beetle can be a devastating pest of beans. The larvae skeletonize the foliage, and can completely defoliate the plants which reduces yields. However, a small eulophid wasp has great potential for controlling Mexican bean beetle in small gardens, even in urban settings. The small beneficial wasp, Pediobius foveolatus, will seek out and destroy Mexican bean beetle larvae. Imported from India, this non-overwintering wasp can suppress MBB to non-damaging levels. Introduced from India, is a gregarious larval parasite that can completely eliminate the beetle in small gardens. This wasp also parasitizes another minor pest in urban gardens, the squash beetle.

 

Mexican bean beetle (MBB) is a major insect pest of beans in the Mid-Atlantic region. MBB adults and larvae eat the undersides of bean leaves causing lacing of the foliage. High levels of defoliation can significantly reduce bean yields. Pediobius foveolatus is a wasp Pediobius has been raised since the late 1970's to control MBB on commercial soybean acreage in New England.

 

In a study done in urban gardens in Washington, D.C., this wasp parasitized 97 to 100% of the Mexican bean beetle larvae in each garden by late summer. In one year no living Mexican bean beetle larvae could be found 14 weeks after parasite releases were made, and the bean plants were thriving. If inoculative releases of the wasps are made at the right time they can eliminate most Mexican bean beetle damage. In Washington, D.C. this is late June, but in some parts of the Midwest it may be later. The wasps should be released when the first generation Mexican bean beetle larvae are about half grown.

This summer Pediobius wasps were released in the students' community gardens at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The extent of parasitism throughout this growing season is being studied, and the impact of this release on beetle populations and bean damage will be assessed next year. Unfortunately, this wasp does not overwinter in the Midwest, so it must be released each year for biological control. Pediobius is available commercially.

Last summer the wasp parasite Pediobius was released in the student gardens at the University of Wisconsin - Madison for control of Mexican bean beetle. The beetle had been a devastating pest on bean plants in these gardens for years some people even gave up growing beans entirely. Early this summer local gardeners reported they had yet to find any leaf damage or any beetle larvae or adults. They didn't want to be too optimistic, but were hoping that the wasp releases the year before completely eliminated this isolated population of Mexican bean beetle. A team of researchers searched the gardens in early August and were unable to find any beetles either.

Source:

Barrows, E. M. and M. E. Hooker. 1981. Parasitization of the Mexican bean beetle by Pediobius foveolatus in urban vegetable gardens. Environ. Entomology 10: 782-786.

 

Pentalitomastix plethoricus, Navel Orangeworm Parasite

Product: A parasitoid of navel orangeworm, carob moth, and related species, grown by California Bioworks.

Common Name: none

Family: Encyrtidae

Genus: Pentalitomastix (Copidosoma)

Species: plethoricus

Origin: Mexico and south Texas, 1964

Host Pest: navel orangeworm, carob moth, and raisin moth

Host Crop: almonds, walnuts, dates, pecans, pistachios, prunes, etc.

Life Stage Shipped: mummied larvae (in capsules for easy handling) full of wasp pupae

Sex Ratio: 1 female to 1 male. A fertile female will produce 50% male and 50% female offspring

Development: One adult female can lay approximately 100 eggs during her lifetime. Adults can live 4 to 5 days with a nectar or honey source available. The adult female seeks out the egg of the host moth into which she deposits one egg. This egg goes through the process of polyembryony, producing as many as 1,200 wasp larvae to consume the fully developed host larva. It requires 45 days from oviposition to adult emergence at 80 F (complete metamorphosis).

Environment: Ideal temperature is 75 to 80 F and a mid to high relative humidity (RH)

Pesticides: Use may not be compatible. Request technical information on specific pesticides. This wasp will readily establish in the absence of pesticide sprays.

Storage: Mummied larvae may be stored for up to 7 days at 50 F and 75% RH. Until release can occur keep pre-emerged parasitoids cool (70 F). Adults should begin to emerge from the pupae within 48 hours when stored at 80 F. Expect some scattered emergence with this insect. Release may have to be made over a period of days. Keep away from sunlight and do not store in an enclosed vehicle or tool box. Release adult wasps only. Do Not place pre-emerged pupae in the orchard, as this will lead to high rates of mortality due to insect predation.

Augmentation: Release rate 1,000 per acre or 30,000 wasps (50 capsules) per orchard. Release method, 8 border (4 corners, 4 sides, 2nd row in) and 2 central release sites. Spring release to coincide with peak moth egg-laying as determined by monitoring traps. May be released, anytime egg-laying is occurring.

May be more effective when used with Goniozus and Trichogramma.